NATIONAL PARKS AND RESERVES
NATURE WORLDWIDE has 2000 pages on
Birdlists, checklists of birds,
mammals and other fauna of all countries of the world and information on national parks to promote biodiversity and nature conservation.
NATURALEZA DEL MUNDO ENTERO: Listas de aves y
mamíferos en 2000 páginas de todos los países del mundo. Información científica y responsable sobre la
biodiversidad, la conservación y el manejo de la naturaleza y los parques nacionales y áreas protegidas y como llegar en
ellos. NATUREZA DO MUNDO Listas de aves e mamíferos em 2000
páginas de todos os países do mundo. Informação científica y responsavel sobre a
biodiversidad, a conservação e manejo / gestão da natureza e dos parques nacionais
(PARNA) e áreas protegidas (unidades de conservação) e como chegar nelles
NATURE DU MONDE ENTIER vous donne des listes d'oiseaux, mammifères,
amphibies, dans 2000 pages de tous les pays du monde. D' information de base responsable sur la
biodiversité, la conservation et gestion de la nature et de parcs nationaux et
regionaux, pour encourager la conservation de la nature. NATUR DER GANZEN WELT gibt checkliste von Vögeln, Säugetiere,
Kriegetiere, aller Länder der Welt. Info über Nationalparke und Hege um Naturschutz zu
NATUUR VAN DE HELE WERELD geeft u in 2000 paginas, checklists van vogels en
zoogdieren, van alle landen van de wereld. Informatie over nationale parken om
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Welcome to the national parks and reserves page.
Much of our basic information comes from the UNEP-WCMC database, though for many
countries updated with info from other sources. However, we are gradually
expanding our info with travel info and biological info. Please
help us increase the quality of this information on any area(s) you know by
filling out the little file in MS Excel "Areas List Table" at the
bottom of this page and returning it to our email.
Bienvenue a ce page de parcs et réserves.
Beaucoup de notre information est obtenue de la base de données du UNEP-WCMC,
bien qu’actualisée avec des données des sources différentes.
Cependant, nous sommes en train d'étendre l'information avec des données
biologiques et d'information de voyage. Veuillez-nous
aider améliorer la qualité de quelconque parc ou réserve que vous connaissez
en remplissant la table en MS Excel en bas de ce page "Areas list table"
et retournant à notre email.
Willkommen auf dieser Seite über Parken und
Naturschutzgebieten. Viel unserer Grund Informationen kommt von der UNEP-WCMC Datenbank, obwohl für viele Länder aktualisiert mit Info von anderen
Quellen. Außerdem werden wir unsere Information allmählich mit Reise-Info und biologischem Info ausbreiten.
Helfen Sie uns bitte die Qualität dieser Informationen auf irgendeinem Gebiet(e) zu vergrößern durch den
MS Excel File "Area list table" am Boden dieser Seite aus zu füllen
und nach unseren email zurück zo schicken.
Bienvenido a esta página de parques y reservas
naturales. Mucho de nuestra information básica está obtenida de la base de
datos del UNEP-WCNC, aún actualizado de otras fuentes para muchos países. Sin
embargo, estamos recopilando información de datos biológicos e información de
viaje para cada área protegida. Ud. puede contribuir a nuestro esfuerzo
con datos adicionales sobre cualquier parque nacional o reserva biológica que
Ud. conoce. En un tal caso le rogamos tener la vondad de llenar el
formulario al fondo de esta página y mandarlo a nuestro correo electrónico.
(Translations are not yet ready)
The definition of a
protected area adopted by IUCN is:
An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the
protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and
associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective
all protected areas meet the general purposes contained in this definition, in
practice the precise purposes for which protected areas are managed differ
greatly. The following are the main purposes of management:
Categories of Protected Areas
The IUCN has
defined a series of protected area management categories based on management
objectives. Definitions of these categories, and examples of each, are provided
in Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories (IUCN, 1994). The
six categories are:
Ia: Strict Nature Reserve: protected area managed mainly for
Definition: Area of land and/or sea possessing some outstanding or
representative ecosystems, geological or physiological features and/or species,
available primarily for scientific research and/or environmental monitoring.
CATEGORY Ib : Wilderness Area: protected area managed mainly for
Definition: Large area of unmodified or slightly modified land,
and/or sea, retaining its natural character and influence, without permanent or
significant habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its
CATEGORY II : National Park: protected area managed mainly for ecosystem
protection and recreation
Definition: Natural area of land and/or sea, designated to (a) protect
the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future
generations, (b) exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of
designation of the area and (c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific,
educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be
environmentally and culturally compatible.
CATEGORY III : Natural Monument: protected area managed mainly for
conservation of specific natural features
Definition: Area containing one, or more, specific natural or
natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding or unique value because of its
inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic qualities or cultural significance.
CATEGORY IV : Habitat/Species Management Area: protected area managed
mainly for conservation through management intervention
Definition: Area of land and/or sea subject to active
intervention for management purposes so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats
and/or to meet the
requirements of specific species.
CATEGORY V : Protected Landscape/Seascape: protected area managed
mainly for landscape/seascape conservation and recreation
Definition: Area of land, with coast and sea as appropriate, where the
interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct
character with significant aesthetic, ecological and/or cultural value, and
often with high biological diversity. Safeguarding the integrity of this
traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance and evolution of
such an area.
CATEGORY VI : Managed Resource Protected Area: protected area managed
mainly for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems
Definition: Area containing predominantly unmodified natural systems,
managed to ensure long term protection and maintenance of biological diversity,
while providing at the same time a sustainable flow of natural products and
services to meet community needs.
Where the site does
not meet the internationally recognised definition of a protected area,
application of a management category is not appropriate. This is indicated as
category unassigned (UA) in UNEP-WCMC protected area lists.
National protected area systems
At the national level, a variety of designations is used, and will continue to
be used. Because of this, it is inevitable that the same designation may mean
different things in different countries; and different designations in different
countries may be used to describe the same category of protected area. This is
one of the key reasons for defining and using at the international level a
system of categories identified by management objectives in a system which does
not depend on titles. This category system is intended to operate in the same
way in all countries so as to facilitate the collection and handling of
comparable data, and to improve communication between countries.
The conditions for the establishment and management of protected areas vary
greatly from region to region, and from country to country. For example, regions
like Europe with long-settled, long-managed landscapes in multiple ownership are
not, on the whole, as suited to the establishment of Category II areas - but on
the other hand, their circumstances are more conducive to the establishment of
Category IV and V areas. The IUCN does not favour different standards being used in
the application of these categories in different parts of the world, as this
would counter the value of having a defined standard. However, the flexibility
which is inherent in these guidelines should help in their application to the
conditions in different regions and countries
Size of Protected Areas
The size of an area should reflect the extent of land or water needed to
accomplish the purposes of management. For example, for a Category I area, the
size should be that needed to ensure the integrity of the area to accomplish the
management objective of strict protection, either as a baseline area or research
site, or for wilderness protection. For a Category II area, the boundaries
should be drawn sufficiently widely that they contain one, or more, entire
ecosystems which are not subject to material modification by human exploitation
Though the primary purposes of management will determine the category to which
an area is assigned, management plans will often contain management zones for a
variety of purposes which take account of local conditions. However, in order to
establish the appropriate category, at least three-quarters and preferably more
of the area must be managed for the primary purpose; and the management of the
remaining area must not be in conflict with that primary purpose. Cases where
parts of a single management unit
are classified by law as having different management
objectives are discussed under the heading of multiple classifications.
Protected areas of different categories are often contiguous; sometimes one
category 'nests' within another. Thus many Category V areas contain within them
Category I and IV areas; some will adjoin Category II areas. Again, some
Category II areas contain Category Ia and Ib areas. This is entirely consistent
with the application of the system, providing such areas are identified
separately for accounting and reporting purposes. Although there are obvious
benefits in having the entire area within the responsibility of one management
authority, this may not always be possible; in such cases, close cooperation
between authorities will be essential.
Governments have a fundamental responsibility for the existence and well being
of national systems of protected areas. They should regard such areas as
important components of national strategies for conservation and sustainable
development. However, the actual responsibility for management of individual
protected areas may rest with central, regional or local government, non
governmental organisations, the private sector or the local community. The test
is whether the designated authority is capable of achieving the management
objectives. In practice, protected area Categories I-III will usually be the
responsibility of some form of governmental body, while responsibility for
categories IV and V may rest with local administrations, albeit usually working
within the framework of national legislation.
Ownership of Land
As with the question of the managing authority, the key test is whether the type
of ownership is compatible with the achievement of the management objectives. In
many countries ownership by some form of public body (whether nationally or
locally based), or an appropriately constituted non-governmental body with
conservation objectives, facilitates management and is therefore to be favoured
in Categories I-III in particular. However, this is not universally true, and -
in the remaining categories - private ownership will be much more common, often
being the predominant form of land ownership.
Whatever the ownership, experience shows that the success of management depends
greatly on the good will and support of local communities. In such cases, the
managing authority will need to have good consultative and communications
systems, and effective mechanisms which may include incentives, to secure
compliance with management objectives.
Areas around Protected
Protected areas are not isolated units. Ecologically, economically, politically
and culturally, they are linked to the areas around them. For that reason, the
planning and management of protected areas must be incorporated within regional
planning, and supported by the policies adopted for wider areas. For the
purposes of the application of the categories system, however, where one area is
used to 'buffer' or surround another, both their categories should be separately
identified and recorded.
information given above is extracted from:
This page has been visited
times since December 1, 2006,
IUCN (1994). Guidelines for Protected Areas Management Categories. IUCN,
Cambridge, UK and Gland, Switzerland. 261pp.
In 2002 WICE carried out an ecological/resource analysis
of the National Protected Areas System of Honduras (SINAPH). All the files
produced in this context can be downloaded from the following links:
These are the list and map proposed in the National parks study by WICE, extended with
2 private reserves.